The Well-Stocked Kitchen, and Jesus in the house of Martha and Mary in the background by Joachim Bueckelaer, 1566. Rilksmuseum.
During the Middle Ages the majority of European peasantry lived on a very home-grown diet, or what today might be called a “whole foods” diet. For most people of the lower classes, meals consisted of rye or barely bead, some type of stew, dairy products such as cheese and milk, and meat such as beef or pork. Most meals were vegetarian, and consisted of fresh vegetables. If peasants lived near a stream or lake, they fished. Peasants also harvested berries and nuts in the forests.
See: Henisch, Bridget Ann. The Medieval Cook. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2009.